He spent 20 years here during which time he excited the admiration and friendship of
Olive Schreiner and the opposition of Jan Smuts, under whose rule Ghandi personally experienced the racial intolerance. This and the poor circumstances of South African Indians led to the formation of the National Indian Congress and later to a successful civil disobedience programme which took the form of passive resistance against the government of the day.
On his return to India in 1914 Ghandi used and refined the tactic of passive resistance to obtain Indian home rule and ultimately independence from Great Britain. He prioritised man’s right to work and opposed mechanisation where it threatened this right.
Ghandi is an international figure, chiefly remembered for his lifestyle of self-denial and his philosophy of pacifism.